Azerbaijan possesses richest folklore of the East and as well as world. The Azerbaijani literature take sits power from ancient oral Azerbaijani literature.
One of the important branches of the oral folk creation is Garabagh folklore.
In view of big cities Ganja, Barda, Shamkir, Beylaqan in the territory of Garabagh in 1 millennium then one can imagine the majesty of this urban culture and literature and oldness. Likewise everywhere in Azerbaijan the 1st literary examples in Garabagh were created by folk poets and it was reflected in folklore
Although the territory of Garabagh changed from time to time depending on the course of historical events (it expanded and shrank), our historians have proved with ancient sources that the territory of Garabagh included the ancient Aran-Arsaq region – the area from the junction of the Araz and Kura rivers (interfluves) to Fort Khuan, now known as the Red Bridge (including the territory of Borchali district), and stretched to Jermukh on the coast of the Lake Goycha and the Sisakan, Gorus and Mehri-Zangazur Mountain Range. This territory forms both the lowland and highland parts of Garabagh.
Azerbaijan’s Turkic-Oguz folklore has genres that are related purely to Garabagh. As experts in Qorqud compiled an approximate map of the events described in the Dada Qorqud epic, they saw that most of the events described in these sagas actually took place on the territory of Garabagh and some of the place names – toponyms – mentioned in the epic historically existed and still exist in Garabagh. Studies show that Dada Gorgud had close links with Garabagh area.
Types and genres
All genres of oral folklore reflected in the Garabagh people’s creativity, and passed from the generation-to generation being in organic relation to each other, and reached our present days. Either small oral genres, as well as examples of epic and lyrical style reflects the region’s geographical landscape, nature, ancestors, the early life and, faiths, beliefs, customs and traditions of our predecessors.
The signs of faiths, beliefs, sorcery, well prayers, oaths, cheer, curses, entreaties and so on examples of the artistic imagination of the primary community clearly visible in the idea-content characteristics.
From oaths like “Swear to earth”, “Swear to heaven”, “Let me blind if I’m wrong’, “Swear to this water’, “Swear to this running water”, “Swear to this light”, “Swear to abundance”,” Swear to Bread”, “Swear to pir”, “Sweat to land of burial of my mother (my father)”,”Let this light make me blind”, “Swear to salt-bread made with you”, “Swear to my mother’s milk” it is known that in general fire, water, sky, light, bread, mother’s milk were historically considered to be sacred.
The worshipping in Garabagh in four elements – water, fire, earth, air as wishes of our ancestors even today could protect and maintain its semantic essence.
Myths and legends
Like other ethnos, the native people of Garabagh for centuries expressed his attitude to events that occurred during the period in the life with legend and tales. Its themes and content is mainly connected with God, the mysterious man infinity of the universe and man, genesis of existence, comparison of bad and good, evil and good, that all these motives leads to the expression of local and national identity.
It is known that good-evil confrontation is widely expressed in the oral and written literature in general, in Azerbaijan. Also the victory of Good over the Evil served on main idea of word art. In formation and protection of such traditions Garabagh myths and tales have a unique role. It is no coincidence that the Y.V.Chamanzaminli, M.H.Tahmasib, M. Seyidov and others while looking for myth, legend traces in folklore topics had studied also some legends and tales connected with Garabagh.
Garabagh legends, tales can be divided into three groups according to content and the idea:
1) about the magic forces.
2) the nature and the miracle of the events.
3) about human life and fate.
In magic fairy-tales, sorcery, magic, genie, talisman, the mother, azrayu, dragon, ahriman, etc. mythical characters, fantastic images are mentioned, the impression of their cruelty and mercilessness is formed, and shown how pure and innocent people are killed in their hands. Through phoenix bird, water of life, unfading flower, an omnipotent old man etc mythical characters the idea of rescue of men by will of God, keeping side of truth by the Good forces and rescuing the oppressed one even at some coincidence.
In the historical myths of Garabagh the living of big body, tall well-built uzukh (oguz) and living for hundred years, is described. It is narrated that uzukh-oghuz braves were tolerant, restrained, self-possessed, and undefeatable to enemies. It becomes clear that they worshipped to fire, water, mountain, show respect to the air, and called the being created sky, land as “god of the sky and the earth”. In this context, when children in Garabagh zone wrestles they use to say: “I am the son of uzukh, the king of ogres”, “Head of ram, head of sheep” and praise themselves, the “Myth about Oghuz”, “Oguz is a strong man” Bayati-myths and other examples tell about far past of Garabagh region.
It is noted that the history of creation of legends and myths about Oghuz coincides with VII-VIII centuries BC, at time of strong inflow of union of Sak and Scythian tribes from the East to the West. However, the Armenian falsifiers, as well as other hostile forces acting against of ancient history of the lands of Azerbaijan and the Garabagh region, root of Azerbaijani Turkic tribes openly deny the Turkic origin of Sak-Scythian tribes.
Garabagh songs with its highly poetic and aesthetic value and features occupies a special place not only among oral but written examples of our literature, and by reflecting feelings at different rites, meetings and traditions, historical events, and causes a great interest as memory carrier of an ancient Turkish life and culture, and the Garabagh dialect increases special features, of dialect, intonation and nature beauties.
Latifa (jokes) creativity
Folklore researchers informs about richness of oral literary traditions of Garabagh with joke, funny stories, and the ability of Garabagh people with fine humor senses to use efficient satire at right time and place. Likewise a number of people of Garabagh tolerates many deprivations, could also to laugh at heart, to enjoy and to look critically at negative facts of own time.
In Novruz celebrations, by showing “Kosa-Kosa”, race, gozbaglija, juggler, magician field performances, as well as to tell funny stories and so make people happy from time to time give a special freshness to the folk festivities. Not only jesters, buffoons, jugglers but almost all turn in Novruz festivities as participants of comic games and performances, talked and laughed, make jokes.
Preservation of combination of traditional form and content in the bayati creation of Garabagh act as one of the natural and historical features of folklore environment.
As early as the XVIII century, M.V.Vidadi in word contest with his friend M.P.Vaqif showed that people of Garabagh lives with bayatis that sung softly, with deep melodic tune and content.
It is impossible to imagine oral art of Garabagh outside of Ashiq creativity. In general, Ashiq creativity is a “special” event in Azerbaijan folklore, and besides being a part of folklore, it carries out the significant part of the burden of folklore on its shoulders. In particular, in continuing the traditions of legend (dastan) traditions the ashug creativity plays an indispensable role. Such a close connection and conformity shows itself in the environment of Garabagh‘s ancient folklore: Garabagh historically was known as ashug-gopuz, and later as the land of ashuq- saz.
It is noted that in Garabagh ashuq creativity was flourished in the XVI-XVIII centuries and that it has a close, deep and aesthetic roots, especially closeness to the sect traditions. For past period ashuq schools were formed here, and many ashugs won the titles of “truth ashug”, “master ashuq”
One of the great master of Garabagh ashuq school is Ashuq Peri. Firidun bey Kocharli wrote that he was clever, a beautiful woman. She gained a great respect at ashuq assemblies. Poets have praised its beauty in own poems.
One of the Ashuqg grown in Garabagh is ashuq Valeh Gulabli. It was proved that he always won in the arena of word contest as a great master of word and saz. As an example his “Valeh and Zarnigar” epos and the fact of winning at old age his rival in Iran.
Beginning from the 13th century, there was a gradual increase in the number of Karabakhi writers and poets writing in the native language.
On the whole, the Karabakh literary atmosphere played a pioneering role in the Azerbaijani-Turkic culture and literature for inventiveness and originality of a series of facts.
In the Karabakh literary atmosphere, as a fact in the literature, the first Karabakhi poet so far known was Davdag who lived and created in the 7th century.
His only available to us poem was in the elegy genre devoted to the murder of the Alban-Partav-Barda ruler, instigated by Armenian priests. We have this poem in translation with a perfect text. The content of this text, its idea and artistic line and style, devoting of an eulogy, a poem to a commander like Javanshir proves that Davdag was a great and renowned master of his time.
In later stages, that is to say, prior to the existence of the town of Panahabad-Shusha, there were considerable number of “Bardais”, “Beylaqanis”, “Ganjavis” dynasties in the history of literature.
Abu Bakir Ahraad al-Bardai, Makki ibn Ahmad Bardai, Xatib Bagdadi Mahammad Al-Bardai, Ahmad ibn al-Huseyn, Abu Said al-Bardai, Abu Ali al-Bardai, Abu Sad ibn Yahya al-Bardai (the facts are from M. Mahmudov’s “Poets and writers writing in Arabic” (VII-XII), Baku, Science print house, 1983) lived and created in the 10th century and were creators of the Azerbaijani literature in Arabic language. They were popular scientists, philosophers and poets both in Azerbaijan and in the Islamic world. These are only known facts from the 10th century.
One of the greatest figures of the 12th century Azerbaijani poetry was Mujraddin Beylaqani of Karabakh whom Khosrov Dahlavi preferred to Khaqani Shirvani for his skills. Zald ibn Huseyn ibn Omar Beylaqani also lived in the same period as Mujiraddin; as a Shariah philosopher he attained high scientific level, went to Damascus where he gained popularity as a leading person of the artistic thought and philosophy and penned a host of high-level literary works.
Tuti Abdulla Qarabagi was an inspired poet of the 14th century, though non of his books reached us yet, his name was mentioned with respect in “Haqiqatus-suara” (The truths of poets; the history of literature).
In the 15th century Sheikh Ibrahim ibn Mahammad Sahabaddin Bardai of Qarabag got the title of Sheikh of his age, renowned in the literary circles under the pseudonym of Gulsani and promoted his faith in Cairo and the Ottoman empire after being promoted to the rank of Movlana Gulshani.
His khanaqah (or the holy place) is in Cairo and is currently functional. Movlana Gulsan’s two sons – Sheikh Ahmad Gulshanizada and Safvati Seyyid Ali Gulshani – were also poets who replaced their father after his death
Yusif ibn Mahammadshahi Qarabagi lived and created in the 16th-17th centuries, was a distinguished scientist of his times, went to the Huseyniyya cloister for dervishes in Samarqand and got promoted to the rank of Movlana Yusif .
In the finest sense of the word, the Karabakh literary atmosphere has always been the background of the Azerbaijani culture and literature, created its impressive pages and guided it.
Ashug Qurbani, master of masters, lived and created in the 16th century, who was a favourite in the palace of Shah Ismayil Khatai. The names of Mirmohsun Lambarani Asaf, Ashug Ali, Ashug Valeh, Ziyadi Qarabagi and Molla Panah Vaqif, who lived in the 18th century, speak volume.
In the 18th century after the foundation of Panahabad-Susa, the Karabakh literary atmosphere turned into the busiest centre of the Azerbaijani literary and cultural atmosphere. The Karabakh khanate also began to determine the directions and establish close relations with the Naxcivan, Iravan, Ganca, Saki and other khanates, including political and social events in Georgia. These relations further expanded the sphere of influence of the Karabakh literary atmosphere.
In 17-18th centuries, the Azerbaijani literature under influence of folklore and mainly of the ashugs came closer to day-to-day life, the popular spoken language and laid the foundation of the transition to the realism phase in the Azerbaijani poetry.
Aga Bayim aga Tuti gained popularity as the shrewdest woman in the east and under the rule of the Iranian Shah Fatali, she became a leading figure in the shah’s diplomacy and spirits of patriotism of her bayatis (a kind of Azerbaijani poem created by common people) still sounds with an astonishing strength.
Beginning from the 18th century the Karabakh literary atmosphere laid the foundation of the realist poem in the Azerbaijani literature and originated, strengthened and developed the 19th century realistic literary method.
XIX-XX century literature
An important event that happened in the historical fate of the Azerbaijani people in the first quarter of the XIX century was that pro-western tendencies got considerably strong both in the Karabakh culture and literature after Azerbaijan’s forceful annexation by the Russian empire.
Under its influence, national, realistic and worldly motifs came to the foreground. With direct impact of Molla Panah Vaqif’s creative activities, Qasim bey Zakir, a representative of the critical-realistic satire, grew up in the Karabakh literary atmosphere to be a pacesetter of the poetic development for a long period.
At the same time, we observe the continuation of Mahammad Fuzuli’s traditions both in Qasim bey Zakir’s own creative activities as well as in the works of poets of his age at a new level with Khurshud Banu Natavan (1830-1897) as one of their greatest representatives.
The Susa-based poetic gatherings Maclisi-uns, or Friendship gathering, and Maclisi-faramusan, or The Gathering of the Forgotten, were led by Khurshud Banu Natavan and Mirza Mohsun Navvab respectively. The poetic gatherings enjoyed closer contacts and poets were communicating with one another. In general, the XIX century literature laid the solid foundation for the transition to the XX century literature considered to be a new prime stage of the Karabakh literary school.
The dramaturgy of the enlightment that developed as the follow-up of Mirza Fatali Akhundzada’s traditions further enriched the Azerbaijani literature with Najaf bay Vezirov’s (1854-1926) comedies, like “Musibati Fakhraddin”, or “Fakhraddin’s tragedy” (1894) penned at the end of the XIX century; Abdurrahim bey Haqverdiyev’s (1870-1933) comedies, including “Dagilan tifaq”, or “Collapsing family”, “Bakhtsiz javan”, or “Ill-fated young man” (1900), and “Aga Mahammad shah Qajar” tragedies.
The first professional Azerbaijani female ashug (folk poet and singer) also grew up in Karabakh and Ashiq Paripersonality (XIX century) is a vivid proof of it. However, this occurrred at the complete stage of the merger of the literature and folklore.
At late of XIX century and early of XX century one of the outstanding representatives of Karabagh was Uzeyir Hajibeyli – a genius composer, the founder of the first opera in the east, a great playwright, the author of the first libretto, the founder of the musical comedy genre, journalist, great publicist, the author of the Azerbaijani national anthem;
In general, the famous figures of literary environment of Karabagh of those days can be listed as below:
Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli – the author of the first historical novels (“Between two fires’ (In blood), “Girls spring” etc); novelist-ethnographer, folklorist, diplomat;
Jeyhun bey Hajıbeyli – writer, publicist, diplomat, folklore scholar (for the first time he published in Paris book “Karabagh folklore” in French and with original texts);
Ahmed bey Aghayev – one of the great ideologist of Azerbaijani statehood, writer- -publicist scholar, news paper man, founder of 1st national Turkic organization fighting the Armenian terrorism “Difai”;
Firudin bey Kocharli (1863-1920), the first literary historician, principal of the Gori and Qazakh Teachers’ Seminary,
Suleyman Sani Akhundov – one of the 1st founder of child literature, he was the creator of 1st image of bey that concentrated Azeri mentality in self in “Nestle of falcon” drama, 1st writer-pedagogist named as National Hero;
These art figures born as Karabagh children turned to be coryphaeus of Azerbaijani culture and literature thought and evaluated as sons of Turkic people.
The Bolshevik Russia could not remain indifferent to the appearance of the independent Azerbaijani state on the scene of history near the red empire’s southern borders with immediate Muslim neighbours of Iran and Turkey. Consequently, unable to withstand strikes of the occupying XI red army, the first Azerbaijani democratic government fell down. The Soviet government was established in the country. The repression of the 1930s stemmed from the first months of the Soviet regime.
The regime’s first intellectual victim was Firudin bey Kocharli (1863-1920), from Karabagh, the principal of the Qazakh Teachers’ Seminary, renowned scientist and literary critic, the author of the first many-volumed book of history of the Azerbaijani literature, who was gunned down by the Armenian Dashnaks at the Ganja prison. As a whole, the repression constitutes the bloody black pages of the Soviet period Azerbaijani literature. At that time, a lot of innocent workers and peasants were also subjected to persecution.
In connection with the global events of the first decades in the XX century and the regional social shocks, in particular, after the collapse of the DRA and the repression of the 1930s, Azerbaijan’s creative intelligentsia time and again came under persecution and finally went into exile as a last resort to survive and continue their literary activities. Those, held hostage in the war against the German fascism and banned from returning home or those who abandoned their fatherland due to persecution of the Shah regime, and their sons and daughters now live in Asia, Africa, Europe and even in Australia
United around a single airm our intelelctuals in emigration have always tirelessly protected, represented with dignity and promoted Azerbaijan’s national, literary, cultural mentality and ideals of Azerbaijanism wherever they live and worked hard to keep in focus of the ruling circles and the public the grief and sorrow of Azerbaijan. Some of those Azerbaijani emigrants, who still continue their creative activities, possess wide-ranging, influential, literary, scientific-philological and publicistic heritage. Jeyhun Hajibeyli is also amongst those authors.
Great services of Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli – the author of “Between two fires” (“In blood”), “Spring of girls” should be underlined. One of the main pecularities of the Soviet-era Azerbaijani literature was that it was constantly guided and controlled by the ideological bodies through directives.
The major of them were the resolution of the Russian Communist (bolsheviks) Party Central Committee “On the party’s policy in the sphere of belles-lettres”; the decision of the All-Union Communist (bolsheviks) Party Central Committee “On the re-organization of the literary and artistic bodies” (1932); “On ‘Zwezda’ and ‘Leningrad’ magazines” (1948); the decision of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijani Communist Party “On the state of the Azerbaijani Soviet literature and measures to improve it” (1948); the decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union “On literary-artistic criticism” (1972) and a number of other political directives. In particular, the literary method of socialist realism, defined by the 1934 first all-union congress of the Soviet writers, restricted authors in their creative activities and obliged them to write within certain limits. After the criticism of “Zvezda” and “Leningrad” magazines for the alleged distortion of the Soviet way of life and casting light on shortcomings in the public life along with literature of other Soviet peoples, literary patterns based on the “lack of conflict” emerged in the Azerbaijani literature.
The most important literary event of the 1960-90ss was the arrival of the generation of the “sixtieth” in literature. After this namely, the literature turned into a real opposition to the total military regime with own spirit and essence and played an active role in intellectual and moral preparation of the current national independence and democratic movement.
The movement for the freedom of speech and thought, freedom of political reflection, pluralism, national independence, social justice in literature continued in 1970-90ss and finally, realized its perspective aims with the gaining of Azerbaijan’s political sovereignty and state independence.
If we add hundreds of Karabakh-born novelists, dramatists, poets, publicists, scientists and journalists, who have been writing since the second half of XX century (or more exactly), the creators of the new era literature) to this list, Karabakh’s contribution to the Azerbaijani literature will be obvious.
Great novelists like Suleyman Rahimov, Ali Veliyev, Ilyas Efendiyev, Bayram Bayramov, Sabir Ahmadov; masters of word, very talanted writers, poets and literary critics like Mehdi Mammadov, Akbar Agayev, Qulu Khalili, Masud Alioglu, Alfi Qasimov, Isi Malikzade, Majid Shamkhalov, Jamil Alibayov, Qasim Qasimzade, Famil Mehdi, Teymur Elchin, Jahangir Gozalov, Elchin, Chingiz Abdullayev, Yusif Kerimov, Shahmar Akbarzade, Vaqif Jabrayilzadr (Vaqif Bayatli Onar), Seyran Sakhavat, Aqil Abbas, Ali Amirov, Zakir Fakhri, Anvar Ahmad; philologists and linguists like Akbar Bayramov, Tofiq Hajiyev, Kamran Mammadov, Qazanfar Kazimov, Kamal Valiyev, Arif Hajiyev, Farida Vezirova, Rasim Tagiyev, Qadir Ismayilov, Arif Safiyev, Vilayat Quliyev, Ilham Rahimli and dozens of intellectuals became outstanding figures of the Azerbaijani literature, literary thought and the literary science and enriched and further developed the Azerbaijani literature with original, artistic-tasteful and scientific thinking. And this giant, ebullient and elated river of thoughts has been flowing.
Since Azerbaijan gained its state independence and joined the ranks of the sovereign world states, the Azerbaijani literature has been instrumental for the liberation of the occupied Azerbaijani territories by the Armenian aggressors and the return of the displaced Karabakh poets and novelists to their native lands. At the same time, the literature is conducive to the people’s aspiration to reach the level of the developed nations and upbringing the young generations in the spirit of patriotism by promoting friendly and cultural ties between the people of Azerbaijan, its immediate and remote neighbours to further develop the advocated by classical writers for centuries humanism and social justice principles in the age of the globalization.
Free from all sorts of ideological prohibitions and confrontation in this sphere, the masters of the artistic thinking contribute more to the development of literature through theoretical and artistic competitions. From this standpoint, we should highlight the presence of the post-modernist angles in the literary activities of Karabakh poets and novelists. At the same time, the key development tendencies of the Karabakh authors are to glorify the triumph of liberation of Karabakh.
Poets and writers of Garabagh
Gasim bey Zakir (1784-1857)
Gasim bey Zakir was born in Shusha. He is descendant of the Javanshirs, well known in Karabakh. He was mainly known as a master of satire. Zakir’s satires mainly turned into anti-colonial laws, the tsar rulers and tsarism regulations. The most severe criticism in Zakir’s satires aimed against those who suppressed rights of innocents and the weak.
The importance of fables in the realist creation of Zakir is exceptional. His fables like “Lion, wolf and jackals”, “Camel and donkey”, “Fox and wolf”, ” on traitor comrades” (“Snake, Camel, Turtle”), “Fox and the Lion”, “On faithful friends” (“Turtle , Crow, Rodent, Gazelle”) are read with interest even now.
Mirza Baybaba Fena (1787 – mid-XIX century)
Mirza Baybaba Fena was born in Shusha. He received his education in madrasah. As he was educated he titled as the clerk. He worked as a secretary at Karabakh khan. Mirza Fena was also a good calligrapher. He compiled collection of poets of Shusha. He copied few books. He was a poet and written poems under the pseudonym “Fena”. He was the father of poetess Fatma khanum Kamine. Mirza Baybaba wrote a pamphlet to Qasim bey Zakir.
Asad bey Vezir, writer (1824-1873)
Asad Bey Vezirov was born in Mirzajamally settlement of Karabakh. He received an excellent education in madrasah. He was a member of the Assembly “Dizaq poets”. He contested with friend Mir Mehdi Khazani. Besides being a landowner he was engaged in doctoral activity.
Khurshid Banu Natavan (1832)
Well-known poet-woman Khurshudbanu Natavan (the last ruler of the Karabakh Javanshir Mehdiqulu Khan’s daughter, Ibrahimkhalil Khan’s grandson) was born in Shusha. As being the last successor of Karabakh khanates she was called in palace as “One pearl” among the people as “Khan’s daughter”.
Kh. Natavan wrote gazals and rubais. Her works are distinguished with deep sincerity, by the gentle lyricism. In poems of an example of the high craftsmanship she used skillfully takrir, qoshma, radif, metaphor, etc. means of artistic skill.
Mashadi Mahmud beyVezirov (1839-1902)
Mashadi Mahmud bey Vezirov was born in the town of Shusha. He got the primary education under the mullah, and then studied at the madrasa. When he grew he was engaged in commerce.
M. Vezirov was also a poet. He wrote in classic style with the name of Mahmud in Turkish and Persian languages.
Fatma khanum Kamine (1841-1898)
Poetess Fatma khanum Kamine was born in Shusha. Fatma khanum had interest in the poetry since the childhood. She is also one of the female ashugs of XIX century. Her father, Mirza Baybaba was the poet and wrote poems under the pseudonym “Fena”. Fatma khanum knew the Persian language perfectly and also wrote poems in this language. At that time, Fatma khanum was one of the most famous 3-5 poetesses. But her poems mainly written in classical form reached us.
Abdullah bey Asi (Fuladov) (1841-1874)
Abdullah bey Asi was born in Shusha. He was intellectual, poet, and thinker of own time. He got his education in Shusha. He know perfectly Arabic, Persian, Russian language, and chigatay language due to reading Navai, and even wrote few ghazals in this language. He was a member of Majlis-faramushasan. His few works have been saved.
Najaf bey Vezirov (1854-1926)
Najaf bey Vezirov was born in the town of Shusha. In 1874 he entered the Moscow Academy of Natural sciences Petrovski-Razumovski forest and forestry department. In June 1878 N. Vezirov graduated from the Academy and with assignment was sent to the Caucasus. He worked as a forester in different regions.
N. Vezirov was a person with an important role in the creation and development of Azerbaijan’s national theater. With “Musibati Fakhreddin” work he founded the genre of tragedy in the Azerbaijani literature. In addition, he created classical works like “Out of the pan into the fire” (“Yagishdan chixdiq yaghmura dushduk”), “Pahlavan-like time”.
Abdurahim bey Hagverdiyev (1870-1933)
Abdurahim bey Hagverdiyev was born in Shusha in bey family. Abdurrahim Bey went to Petersburg to get higher education in 1891, and was admitted to the Institute of Road Engineers. At the same time, he listened to the debates on Oriental languages and literature at the Oriental faculty of the University of St. Petersburg as a listener, interested in Muslim history and culture. He was engaged in the teaching, as well as made directing in theaters for the performances. A. Hagverdiyev enriched our national dramaturgy in terms of the idea and poetry-art with writing “Bekhtsiz javan” (Unlucky young) (1900) and “Peri-jadu” (Magic peri) (1901) tragedies. At the same time he is the author of other works like “My deer”, “Letters of Fire of satan”, “Sheikh Shaban”, “Dreams”, “Hungry guys”.
Suleyman Sani Akhundov (1875-1939)
Suleyman Sani Akhundov was born in Shusha in bey family. He was Azerbaijani playwright, writer of children’s literature and teacher. The first literary work – “Greedy” was written in 1899. During 1912-1913 S. Akhundov wrote the book in five-part “Terrible tales”. During the Soviet Union these tales had gained great popularity for dedicating to poverty and injustice in the world of children’s literature. In works written after 1920, S. Akhundov continued to take criticize the cruelty, old conservative traditions and backwardness.
Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli (1887-1943))
Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli was born in the town of Shusha. He was admitted in Law faculty of the Imperial University named after St. Vladimir in Kiev in 1910.
After the establishment of an independent Ukraine, the Republic of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic has appointed him as the diplomatic representatives in Ukraine. In 1919, Y.V.Chamanzaminli was appointed as first ambassador of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to Turkey.
Y.V.Chamanzaminli published novels “Spring of Girls”, “Students”, “1917”. In 1937, he wrote a famous novel “In blood”
Chamanzaminli was subjected to repression 1937-38 and died in the camp in Russia’s Nizhny Novgorod province, station Sukhobezvodnaya.
Ilyas Efendiyev (1914-1996)
The outstanding Azerbaijan writer and dramatist I. Efendiyev was born in Fizuli region. He published novels and plays like “Bridge builders” / 1960 /, ” The three friends behind the mountains ” / 1963 /, “Tale of Sarykoynak and Valeh” / 1976-78 /, “Don’t look back, the old” / 1980 /, “Uchatilan” / 1981 / and at the same wrote interesting dramas (“My fault “/ 1967 /,” I can not forget “/ 1968 /,”Destroyed diaries “/ 1969 /,” Strange man “/ 1973 /,” Voice from the gardens”/ 1976 /). With “You are always with me” / 1964 / play he laid the foundation of lyrical and psychological dramas in Azerbaijan.
Bayram Bayramov (1918-1994)
Bayram Bayramov was born in the village of Sivand of Aghdam region. His the people’s writer of Azerbaijan. He was an active public figure. He is the author of “Single man”, “Leaves”, “Without You”, “Her eyes” novels and plays.
Alfi Qasimov (1927-1985)
Alfi Qasimov was born in Aghdam region. His first book of essays “At the bottom of our husbands” was published in 1954. After that, his books like “Student brigades” (1960), ” Fire Heart” (1962), “Dnepr Hero” (1963), “Caravan of Stars” (1967), “Though hair get white” (1970) won the readers’ sympathy.
Sabir Ahmadli (1930-2009)
Sabir Ahmadli was born in Jabrayil region. His “Aran”, “Stairs”, “Invisible waves”, “Slope sign”, “Togan,” “The world’s size”, “January stories”, “The spirit of martyrs”, etc. books has been published. His works had been always welcomed by the readers with a great interest.
Shahmar Akbarzade (1941-2000)
Well-known poet, publicist Shahmar Akbarzade was born in Aghdam. Worked in the press for a long time he was awarded with “Araz”, “Golden Pen” awards. He won the sympathy of the readers with lyric, patriotic motivated poems.
Chingiz Alioglu (1944)
Chingiz Alioglu was born in Fizuli region. He is a poet, translator.
He began the artistic creativity with “Memories” poem published in “Young pens” (1967) collection. He is published regularly in press with poems, stories, literary and artistic interpretation, and journalistic articles. He is the author of dozens of books of poems.
Seyran Sakhavat (1946)
Seyran Sakhavat was born in Fizuli region.
He began the creative activity with poems, stories and articles published in media since 1962. His works have been translated into languages of the peoples of the former Soviet Union and a number of foreign languages. His plays “Golden test”, “Bust”, ” The world on other side of doors” were staged.
Sakhavat is an author of the books “Islands” (poems), “My planet” (poems), “Everybody knew that” (stories and narrative), “Stone houses” (novel), “Golden test” (narratives, stories), “Obituary”(novel), etc.
Abbasov Agil Mahammad –Deputy of National Assembly of the Republic of Azerbaijan, honoured journalist of Azerbaijan, a member of the Writers’ Union since 1986, The Komsomol Award winner (1987) (“the best man” for the book), “ Golden Pen “prize winner of Journalists Union of Azerbaijan (1993), literary award winner named “Mammad Araz ” (1994),” Morning star “(1993), “Memory” and “Zeynalabdin Tagiyev” awards.
Chingiz Abdullayev (1959)
Being originally from Shusha Ch.Abdullayev is a well-known writer, publicist, author of world-famous detective novels. The products of the writer’s pen like “Passage from the hell” “No way back”, “Create your own world”, “Incredible murder”, “Death on the Atlantic”, “Hammurapi’s Code”, “Attempt at the beginning of BC,” and other historical detectives are popular around the world.